English Ie "i.e." in German
i.e. Bedeutung, Definition i.e.: 1. used especially in writing before a piece of Improve your vocabulary with English Vocabulary in Use from Cambridge.  There are several abbreviations in English e.g. i.e. (Latin: „id est“) – meaning „that is to say“. Es gibt etliche Abkürzungen im Englischen, z. B. i. e. (Latein: „id. The abbreviation 'i.e.' means “that is” or “in other words” and comes In British English, however, “i.e.” and “e.g.” are not followed by a comma. Translation for 'i. e.' in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. homebrewsoftware.co English-German Dictionary: Translation for i e.
i.e. - Traduzione del vocabolo e dei suoi composti, e discussioni del forum. comma or semicolon before 'i.e.' [abbreviation]: two elements; i.e. - English Only. The abbreviation 'i.e.' means “that is” or “in other words” and comes In British English, however, “i.e.” and “e.g.” are not followed by a comma. homebrewsoftware.co German-English Dictionary: Translation for i e.
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English Ie Video"ie" or "ei" _ No more confusion_Achieve, Receive, Believe_English training videos
A near-complete conquest was achieved by the turn of the 17th century, following the Nine Years' War and the Flight of the Earls.
This control was consolidated during the wars and conflicts of the 17th century, including the English and Scottish colonisation in the Plantations of Ireland , the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Williamite War.
Irish losses during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms which, in Ireland, included the Irish Confederacy and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland are estimated to include 20, battlefield casualties.
A further 50, [Note 1] were sent into indentured servitude in the West Indies. Physician-general William Petty estimated that , Catholic Irish and , Protestant settlers died, and , people were transported, as a result of the war.
The religious struggles of the 17th century left a deep sectarian division in Ireland. Religious allegiance now determined the perception in law of loyalty to the Irish King and Parliament.
After the passing of the Test Act , and the victory of the forces of the dual monarchy of William and Mary over the Jacobites , Roman Catholics and nonconforming Protestant Dissenters were barred from sitting as members in the Irish Parliament.
Under the emerging Penal Laws , Irish Roman Catholics and Dissenters were increasingly deprived of various and sundry civil rights even to the ownership of hereditary property.
Additional regressive punitive legislation followed in , and This completed a comprehensive systemic effort to materially disadvantage Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters, while enriching a new ruling class of Anglican conformists.
The " Great Frost " struck Ireland and the rest of Europe between December and September , after a decade of relatively mild winters. The winters destroyed stored crops of potatoes and other staples, and the poor summers severely damaged harvests.
An estimated , people about one in eight of the population died from the ensuing pestilence and disease. In the aftermath of the famine, an increase in industrial production and a surge in trade brought a succession of construction booms.
The population soared in the latter part of this century and the architectural legacy of Georgian Ireland was built. In , Poynings' Law was repealed, giving Ireland legislative independence from Great Britain for the first time since The British government, however, still retained the right to nominate the government of Ireland without the consent of the Irish parliament.
In , members of the Protestant Dissenter tradition mainly Presbyterian made common cause with Roman Catholics in a republican rebellion inspired and led by the Society of United Irishmen , with the aim of creating an independent Ireland.
Despite assistance from France the rebellion was put down by British and Irish government and yeomanry forces.
The passage of the Act in the Irish Parliament was ultimately achieved with substantial majorities, having failed on the first attempt in According to contemporary documents and historical analysis, this was achieved through a considerable degree of bribery, with funding provided by the British Secret Service Office, and the awarding of peerages, places and honours to secure votes.
Aside from the development of the linen industry, Ireland was largely passed over by the industrial revolution , partly because it lacked coal and iron resources   and partly because of the impact of the sudden union with the structurally superior economy of England,  which saw Ireland as a source of agricultural produce and capital.
The Great Famine of — devastated Ireland, as in those years Ireland's population fell by one-third. More than one million people died from starvation and disease, with an additional million people emigrating during the famine, mostly to the United States and Canada.
The period of civil unrest that followed until the end of the 19th century is referred to as the Land War. Mass emigration became deeply entrenched and the population continued to decline until the midth century.
Immediately prior to the famine the population was recorded as 8. The 19th and early 20th centuries saw the rise of modern Irish nationalism , primarily among the Roman Catholic population.
He was elected as Member of Parliament for Ennis in a surprise result and despite being unable to take his seat as a Roman Catholic.
O'Connell spearheaded a vigorous campaign that was taken up by the Prime Minister, the Irish-born soldier and statesman, the Duke of Wellington.
George's father had opposed the plan of the earlier Prime Minister, Pitt the Younger , to introduce such a bill following the Union of , fearing Catholic Emancipation to be in conflict with the Act of Settlement Daniel O'Connell led a subsequent campaign, for the repeal of the Act of Union, which failed.
Unionists, especially those located in Ulster, were strongly opposed to Home Rule, which they thought would be dominated by Catholic interests.
To prevent this from happening, the Ulster Volunteers were formed in under the leadership of Edward Carson. Their formation was followed in by the establishment of the Irish Volunteers , whose aim was to ensure that the Home Rule Bill was passed.
The Act was passed but with the "temporary" exclusion of the six counties of Ulster that would become Northern Ireland.
Before it could be implemented, however, the Act was suspended for the duration of the First World War. The Irish Volunteers split into two groups.
The majority, approximately , in number, under John Redmond , took the name National Volunteers and supported Irish involvement in the war.
A minority, approximately 13,, retained the Irish Volunteers' name and opposed Ireland's involvement in the war. The Easter Rising of was carried out by the latter group together with a smaller socialist militia, the Irish Citizen Army.
The British response, executing fifteen leaders of the Rising over a period of ten days and imprisoning or interning more than a thousand people, turned the mood of the country in favour of the rebels.
Support for Irish republicanism increased further due to the ongoing war in Europe, as well as the Conscription Crisis of Simultaneously the Volunteers, which became known as the Irish Republican Army IRA , launched a three-year guerrilla war , which ended in a truce in July although violence continued until June , mostly in Northern Ireland.
It gave Ireland complete independence in its home affairs and practical independence for foreign policy, but an opt-out clause allowed Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom, which as expected it immediately exercised.
Additionally, Members of the Free State Parliament were required to swear an oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the Irish Free State and make a statement of faithfulness to the King.
The civil war officially ended in May when de Valera issued a cease-fire order. During its first decade, the newly formed Irish Free State was governed by the victors of the civil war.
When de Valera achieved power, he took advantage of the Statute of Westminster and political circumstances to build upon inroads to greater sovereignty made by the previous government.
The oath was abolished and in a new constitution was adopted. However, it was not until that the state was declared, officially, to be the Republic of Ireland.
The state was neutral during World War II , but offered clandestine assistance to the Allies , particularly in the potential defence of Northern Ireland.
Despite their country's neutrality, approximately 50,  volunteers from independent Ireland joined the British forces during the war, four being awarded Victoria Crosses.
The German intelligence was also active in Ireland. To the authorities, counterintelligence was a fundamental line of defence.
With a regular army of only slightly over seven thousand men at the start of the war, and with limited supplies of modern weapons, the state would have had great difficulty in defending itself from invasion from either side in the conflict.
Large-scale emigration marked most of the post-WWII period particularly during the s and s , but beginning in the economy improved, and the s saw the beginning of substantial economic growth.
This period of growth became known as the Celtic Tiger. In , it was the sixth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita.
Foster argues the cause was a combination of a new sense of initiative and the entry of American corporations.
He concludes the chief factors were low taxation, pro-business regulatory policies, and a young, tech-savvy workforce. For many multinationals the decision to do business in Ireland was made easier still by generous incentives from the Industrial Development Authority.
In addition European Union membership was helpful, giving the country lucrative access to markets that it had previously reached only through the United Kingdom, and pumping huge subsidies and investment capital into the Irish economy.
Modernisation brought secularisation in its wake. The traditionally high levels of religiosity have sharply declined. Foster points to three factors: Irish feminism, largely imported from America with liberal stances on contraception, abortion, and divorce undermined the authority of bishops and priests.
Second, the mishandling of the pedophile scandals humiliated the Church, whose bishops seemed less concerned with the victims and more concerned with covering up for errant priests.
Third, prosperity brought hedonism and materialism that undercut the ideals of saintly poverty. The financial crisis that began in dramatically ended this period of boom.
Northern Ireland resulted from the division of the United Kingdom by the Government of Ireland Act , and until was a self-governing jurisdiction within the United Kingdom with its own parliament and prime minister.
Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom, was not neutral during the Second World War, and Belfast suffered four bombing raids in Conscription was not extended to Northern Ireland, and roughly an equal number volunteered from Northern Ireland as volunteered from the south.
Although Northern Ireland was largely spared the strife of the civil war, in decades that followed partition there were sporadic episodes of inter-communal violence.
Nationalists, mainly Roman Catholic, wanted to unite Ireland as an independent republic, whereas unionists, mainly Protestant, wanted Northern Ireland to remain in the United Kingdom.
The Protestant and Catholic communities in Northern Ireland voted largely along sectarian lines, meaning that the government of Northern Ireland elected by "first-past-the-post" from was controlled by the Ulster Unionist Party.
Over time, the minority Catholic community felt increasingly alienated with further disaffection fuelled by practices such as gerrymandering and discrimination in housing and employment.
In the late s, nationalist grievances were aired publicly in mass civil rights protests, which were often confronted by loyalist counter-protests.
Law and order broke down as unrest and inter-communal violence increased. In , the paramilitary Provisional IRA , which favoured the creation of a united Ireland , emerged from a split in the Irish Republican Army and began a campaign against what it called the "British occupation of the six counties".
Other groups, on both the unionist side and the nationalist side, participated in violence and a period known as the Troubles began.
Over 3, deaths resulted over the subsequent three decades of conflict. There were several unsuccessful attempts to end the Troubles politically, such as the Sunningdale Agreement of In , following a ceasefire by the Provisional IRA and multi-party talks, the Good Friday Agreement was concluded as a treaty between the British and Irish governments, annexing the text agreed in the multi-party talks.
The substance of the Agreement formally referred to as the Belfast Agreement was later endorsed by referendums in both parts of Ireland.
The Agreement restored self-government to Northern Ireland on the basis of power-sharing in a regional Executive drawn from the major parties in a new Northern Ireland Assembly , with entrenched protections for the two main communities.
The Executive is jointly headed by a First Minister and deputy First Minister drawn from the unionist and nationalist parties.
Violence had decreased greatly after the Provisional IRA and loyalist ceasefires in and in the Provisional IRA announced the end of its armed campaign and an independent commission supervised its disarmament and that of other nationalist and unionist paramilitary organisations.
The Assembly and power-sharing Executive were suspended several times but were restored again in In that year the British government officially ended its military support of the police in Northern Ireland Operation Banner and began withdrawing troops.
The island is divided between the Republic of Ireland, an independent state , and Northern Ireland a constituent country of the United Kingdom.
They share an open border and both are part of the Common Travel Area. The Republic of Ireland is a member of the European Union while the United Kingdom is a former member, having both acceded to its precursor entity, the European Economic Community [EEC], in , and as a consequence there is free movement of people, goods, services and capital across the border.
The Republic of Ireland is a parliamentary democracy based on the British model, with a written constitution and a popularly elected president who has mostly ceremonial powers.
Its capital is Dublin. The republic today ranks amongst the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita  and in was ranked the sixth most developed nation in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index.
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom with a local executive and assembly which exercise devolved powers. The executive is jointly headed by the first and deputy first minister, with the ministries being allocated in proportion with each party's representation in the assembly.
Its capital is Belfast. Ultimately political power is held by the UK government , from which Northern Ireland has gone through intermittent periods of direct rule during which devolved powers have been suspended.
The Northern Ireland Secretary is a cabinet-level post in the British government. Along with England and Wales and with Scotland, Northern Ireland forms one of the three separate legal jurisdictions of the UK, all of which share the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom as their court of final appeal.
As part of the Good Friday Agreement, the British and Irish governments agreed on the creation of all-island institutions and areas of cooperation.
At least six of these policy areas must have an associated all-island "implementation bodies," and at least six others must be implemented separately in each jurisdiction.
The British—Irish Intergovernmental Conference provides for co-operation between the Government of Ireland and the Government of the United Kingdom on all matters of mutual interest, especially Northern Ireland.
In light of the Republic's particular interest in the governance of Northern Ireland, "regular and frequent" meetings co-chaired by the ROI Minister for Foreign Affairs and the UK Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, dealing with non-devolved matters to do with Northern Ireland and non-devolved all-Ireland issues, are required to take place under the establishing treaty.
It has no formal powers but operates as a forum for discussing matters of common concern between the respective legislatures.
Despite the two jurisdictions using two distinct currencies the euro and pound sterling , a growing amount of commercial activity is carried out on an all-Ireland basis.
This has been facilitated by the two jurisdictions' shared membership of the European Union, and there have been calls from members of the business community and policymakers for the creation of an "all-Ireland economy" to take advantage of economies of scale and boost competitiveness.
Dublin is the most heavily touristed region  and home to several of the most popular attractions such as the Guinness Storehouse and Book of Kells.
Achill Island lies off the coast of County Mayo and is Ireland's largest island. It is a popular tourist destination for surfing and contains 5 Blue Flag beaches and Croaghaun one of the worlds highest sea cliffs.
Stately homes , built during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries in Palladian , Neoclassical and neo-Gothic styles, such as Castle Ward , Castletown House , Bantry House , and Glenveagh Castle are also of interest to tourists.
Giant's Causeway , County Antrim. Skellig Michael , County Kerry. Newgrange , County Meath. Ireland has an ancient industry based on peat known locally as "turf" as a source of energy for home fires.
A form of biomass energy, this source of heat is still widely used in rural areas. However, because of the ecological importance of peatlands in storing carbon and their rarity, the EU is attempting to protect this habitat by fining Ireland for digging up peat.
In cities, heat is generally supplied by natural gas or heating oil , although some urban suppliers distribute sods of turf as "smokeless fuel" for domestic use.
The island operates as a single market for electricity. Both networks were designed and constructed independently post-partition.
However, they are now connected with three interlinks  and also connected through Great Britain to mainland Europe. The situation in Northern Ireland is complicated by the issue of private companies not supplying Northern Ireland Electricity with enough power.
As with electricity, the natural gas distribution network is also now all-island, with a pipeline linking Gormanston, County Meath , and Ballyclare , County Antrim.
Supplies come from the Corrib Gas Field , off the coast of County Mayo, with a decreasing supply coming from the Kinsale gas field off the County Cork coast.
The Republic has a strong commitment to renewable energy and ranks as one of the top 10 markets for clean-technology investment in the Global Green Economy Index.
Large wind farms have been constructed in Cork, Donegal, Mayo and Antrim. The construction of wind farms has in some cases been delayed by opposition from local communities, some of whom regard the wind turbines as unsightly.
The Republic is hindered by an ageing network that was not designed to handle the varying availability of power that comes from wind farms.
Prior to partition in , Ireland had a long history as an economic colony - first of the Norse 9th to 10th centuries CE , and later of England.
Though the climate and soil favoured certain forms of agriculture,  trade barriers frequently hobbled its development. Repeated invasions and "plantations" disrupted land-ownership , and multiple failed uprisings also contributed to repeated phases of deportation and of emigration.
As the term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland, the alternate term Britain and Ireland is often used as a neutral term for the islands.
A ring of coastal mountains surround low plains at the centre of the island. The island consists of varied geological provinces.
In the west, around County Galway and County Donegal , is a medium to high grade metamorphic and igneous complex of Caledonide affinity, similar to the Scottish Highlands.
Across southeast Ulster and extending southwest to Longford and south to Navan is a province of Ordovician and Silurian rocks, with similarities to the Southern Uplands province of Scotland.
Further south, along the County Wexford coastline, is an area of granite intrusives into more Ordovician and Silurian rocks, like that found in Wales.
In the southwest, around Bantry Bay and the mountains of MacGillycuddy's Reeks , is an area of substantially deformed, lightly metamorphosed Devonian -aged rocks.
The west-coast district of the Burren around Lisdoonvarna has well-developed karst features. Hydrocarbon exploration is ongoing following the first major find at the Kinsale Head gas field off Cork in the mids.
This has increased activity off the west coast in parallel with the " West of Shetland " step-out development from the North Sea hydrocarbon province.
Dunluce Castle , County Antrim. Benbulbin , County Sligo. Connemara , County Galway. Glendalough , County Wicklow.
Ardfert Cathedral , County Kerry. Glenbeg Lough , County Cork. The island's lush vegetation, a product of its mild climate and frequent rainfall, earns it the sobriquet the Emerald Isle.
Overall, Ireland has a mild but changeable oceanic climate with few extremes. The climate is typically insular and is temperate , avoiding the extremes in temperature of many other areas in the world at similar latitudes.
Precipitation falls throughout the year but is light overall, particularly in the east. The west tends to be wetter on average and prone to Atlantic storms, especially in the late autumn and winter months.
These occasionally bring destructive winds and higher total rainfall to these areas, as well as sometimes snow and hail.
The regions of north County Galway and east County Mayo have the highest incidents of recorded lightning annually for the island, with lightning occurring approximately five to ten days per year in these areas.
Inland areas are warmer in summer and colder in winter. Ireland is sometimes affected by heatwaves, most recently in , , , and In common with the rest of Europe, Ireland experienced unusually cold weather during the winter of Because Ireland became isolated from mainland Europe by rising sea levels before the last ice age had completely finished, it has fewer land animal and plant species than Great Britain or mainland Europe.
There are 55 mammal species in Ireland, and of them only 26 land mammal species are considered native to Ireland.
Aquatic wildlife, such as species of sea turtle, shark, seal, whale, and dolphin, are common off the coast.
About species of birds have been recorded in Ireland. Many of these are migratory, including the barn swallow. Several different habitat types are found in Ireland, including farmland, open woodland, temperate broadleaf and mixed forests , conifer plantations, peat bogs and a variety of coastal habitats.
However, agriculture drives current land use patterns in Ireland, limiting natural habitat preserves,  particularly for larger wild mammals with greater territorial needs.
With no large apex predators in Ireland other than humans and dogs, such populations of animals as semi-wild deer that cannot be controlled by smaller predators, such as the fox, are controlled by annual culling.
There are no snakes in Ireland, and only one species of reptile the common lizard is native to the island. Extinct species include the Irish elk , the great auk , brown bear and the wolf.
Some previously extinct birds, such as the golden eagle , have been reintroduced after decades of extirpation.
Ireland is now one of the least forested countries in Europe. Much of the land is now covered with pasture and there are many species of wild-flower.
Gorse Ulex europaeus , a wild furze , is commonly found growing in the uplands and ferns are plentiful in the more moist regions, especially in the western parts.
It is home to hundreds of plant species, some of them unique to the island, and has been "invaded" by some grasses, such as Spartina anglica.
The algal and seaweed flora is that of the cold-temperate variety. The total number of species is  The island has been invaded by some algae, some of which are now well established.
Because of its mild climate, many species, including sub-tropical species such as palm trees , are grown in Ireland.
The island can be subdivided into two ecoregions : the Celtic broadleaf forests and North Atlantic moist mixed forests.
The long history of agricultural production, coupled with modern intensive agricultural methods such as pesticide and fertiliser use and runoff from contaminants into streams, rivers and lakes, has placed pressure on biodiversity in Ireland.
Hedgerows, however, traditionally used for maintaining and demarcating land boundaries, act as a refuge for native wild flora.
This ecosystem stretches across the countryside and acts as a network of connections to preserve remnants of the ecosystem that once covered the island.
Subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy , which supported agricultural practices that preserved hedgerow environments, are undergoing reforms.
The Common Agricultural Policy had in the past subsidised potentially destructive agricultural practices, for example by emphasising production without placing limits on indiscriminate use of fertilisers and pesticides; but reforms have gradually decoupled subsidies from production levels and introduced environmental and other requirements.
Forested areas typically consist of monoculture plantations of non-native species, which may result in habitats that are not suitable for supporting native species of invertebrates.
Natural areas require fencing to prevent over-grazing by deer and sheep that roam over uncultivated areas. Grazing in this manner is one of the main factors preventing the natural regeneration of forests across many regions of the country.
People have lived in Ireland for over 9, years. Many survived into late medieval times, others vanished as they became politically unimportant.
Over the past 1, years, Vikings , Normans , Welsh , Flemings , Scots , English , Africans , Eastern Europeans and South Americans have all added to the population and have had significant influences on Irish culture.
The population of Ireland rose rapidly from the 16th century until the midth century, interrupted briefly by the Famine of —41 , which killed roughly two fifths of the island's population.
The population rebounded and multiplied over the next century, but the Great Famine of the s caused one million deaths and forced over one million more to emigrate in its immediate wake.
Over the following century, the population was reduced by over half, at a time when the general trend in European countries was for populations to rise by an average of three-fold.
Ireland's largest religious group is Christianity. Traditionally, Ireland is subdivided into four provinces : Connacht west , Leinster east , Munster south , and Ulster north.
In a system that developed between the 13th and 17th centuries,  Ireland has 32 traditional counties. Twenty-six of these counties are in the Republic of Ireland, and six are in Northern Ireland.
The six counties that constitute Northern Ireland are all in the province of Ulster which has nine counties in total.
As such, Ulster is often used as a synonym for Northern Ireland, although the two are not coterminous.
In the Republic of Ireland, counties form the basis of the system of local government. Counties Dublin , Cork , Limerick , Galway , Waterford and Tipperary have been broken up into smaller administrative areas.
However, they are still treated as counties for cultural and some official purposes, for example, postal addresses and by the Ordnance Survey Ireland.
Counties in Northern Ireland are no longer used for local governmental purposes,  but, as in the Republic, their traditional boundaries are still used for informal purposes such as sports leagues and in cultural or tourism contexts.
City status in Ireland is decided by legislative or royal charter. Dublin , with over 1 million residents in the Greater Dublin Area , is the largest city on the island.
Belfast, with , residents, is the largest city in Northern Ireland. City status does not directly equate with population size.
For example, Armagh , with 14, is the seat of the Church of Ireland and the Roman Catholic Primate of All Ireland and was re-granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II in having lost that status in local government reforms of In the Republic of Ireland, Kilkenny , seat of the Butler dynasty , while no longer a city for administrative purposes since the Local Government Act , is entitled by law to continue to use the description.
Dublin Cork. Belfast Derry. The population of Ireland collapsed dramatically during the second half of the 19th century.
A population of over 8 million in was reduced to slightly more than 4 million by In part, the fall in population was caused by death from the Great Famine of to , which took about 1 million lives.
However, by far the greater cause of population decline was the dire economic state of the country which led to an entrenched culture of emigration lasting until the 21st century.
Emigration from Ireland in the 19th century contributed to the populations of England, the United States, Canada and Australia, in all of which a large Irish diaspora lives.
As of [update] , 4. With growing prosperity since the last decade of the 20th century, Ireland became a destination for immigrants.
Since the European Union expanded to include Poland in , Polish people have made up the largest number of immigrants over ,  from Central Europe.
There has also been significant immigration from Lithuania, Czech Republic and Latvia. Up to 50, eastern and central European migrant workers left Ireland in response to the Irish financial crisis.
The two official languages of the Republic of Ireland are Irish and English. Each language has produced noteworthy literature.
Irish, though now only the language of a minority, was the vernacular of the Irish people for thousands of years and was possibly introduced during the Iron Age.
It began to be written down after Christianisation in the 5th century and spread to Scotland and the Isle of Man, where it evolved into the Scottish Gaelic and Manx languages respectively.
The Irish language has a vast treasury of written texts from many centuries and is divided by linguists into Old Irish from the 6th to 10th century, Middle Irish from the 10th to 13th century, Early Modern Irish until the 17th century, and the Modern Irish spoken today.
It remained the dominant language of Ireland for most of those periods, having influences from Latin , Old Norse , French and English.
It declined under British rule but remained the majority tongue until the early 19th century, and since then has been a minority language.
The Gaelic Revival of the early 20th century has had a long-term influence. Irish is taught in mainstream Irish schools as a compulsory subject, but teaching methods have been criticised for their ineffectiveness, with the lack of level of ability after, typically, fourteen years of instruction cited.
There is now an extensive network of urban Irish speakers in both the Republic and Northern Ireland, especially in Dublin and Belfast.
They represent an expanding demographic, [ citation needed ] and their children often attend Irish-medium schools Gaelscoil.
It has been argued that they tend to be more highly educated than monolingual English speakers. Traditional rural Irish-speaking areas, known collectively as the Gaeltacht , are in linguistic decline.
The main Gaeltacht areas are in the west, south-west and north-west. English in Ireland was first introduced during the Norman invasion.
It was spoken by a few peasants and merchants brought over from England, and was largely replaced by Irish before the Tudor conquest of Ireland.
It was introduced as the official language with the Tudor and Cromwellian conquests. The Ulster plantations gave it a permanent foothold in Ulster, and it remained the official and upper-class language elsewhere, the Irish-speaking chieftains and nobility having been deposed.
Language shift during the 19th century replaced Irish with English as the first language for a vast majority of the population.
Shelta , the language of the nomadic Irish Travellers is native to Ireland. Ireland's culture comprises elements of the culture of ancient peoples, later immigrant and broadcast cultural influences chiefly Gaelic culture , Anglicisation , Americanisation and aspects of broader European culture.
This combination of cultural influences is visible in the intricate designs termed Irish interlace or Celtic knotwork.
These can be seen in the ornamentation of medieval religious and secular works. The style is still popular today in jewellery and graphic art,  as is the distinctive style of traditional Irish music and dance, and has become indicative of modern "Celtic" culture in general.
Religion has played a significant role in the cultural life of the island since ancient times and since the 17th century plantations , has been the focus of political identity and divisions on the island.
Ireland's pre-Christian heritage fused with the Celtic Church following the missions of Saint Patrick in the 5th century. These missions brought written language to an illiterate population of Europe during the Dark Ages that followed the fall of Rome , earning Ireland the sobriquet, "the island of saints and scholars".
Since the 20th century Irish pubs worldwide have become outposts of Irish culture, especially those with a full range of cultural and gastronomic offerings.
The Republic of Ireland's national theatre is the Abbey Theatre , which was founded in , and the national Irish-language theatre is An Taibhdhearc , which was established in in Galway.
Ireland has made a large contribution to world literature in all its branches, both in Irish and English. Poetry in Irish is among the oldest vernacular poetry in Europe, with the earliest examples dating from the 6th century.
Irish remained the dominant literary language down to the nineteenth century, despite the spread of English from the seventeenth century on.
The latter part of the nineteenth century saw a rapid replacement of Irish by English. By , however, cultural nationalists had begun the Gaelic revival , which saw the beginnings of modern literature in Irish.
Other notable 18th-century writers of Irish origin included Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan , though they spent most of their lives in England.
The playwright and poet Oscar Wilde , noted for his epigrams, was born in Ireland. Although not a Nobel Prize winner, James Joyce is widely considered to be one of the most significant writers of the 20th century.
Joyce's novel Ulysses is considered one of the most important works of Modernist literature and his life is celebrated annually on 16 June in Dublin as " Bloomsday ".
Music has been in evidence in Ireland since prehistoric times. Outside religious establishments, musical genres in early Gaelic Ireland are referred to as a triad of weeping music goltraige , laughing music geantraige and sleeping music suantraige.
Classical music following European models first developed in urban areas, in establishments of Anglo-Irish rule such as Dublin Castle , St Patrick's Cathedral and Christ Church as well as the country houses of the Anglo-Irish ascendancy, with the first performance of Handel 's Messiah being among the highlights of the baroque era.
In the 19th century, public concerts provided access to classical music to all classes of society. Yet, for political and financial reasons Ireland has been too small to provide a living to many musicians, so the names of the better-known Irish composers of this time belong to emigrants.
Irish traditional music and dance has seen a surge in popularity and global coverage since the s. In the middle years of the 20th century, as Irish society was modernising, traditional music had fallen out of favour, especially in urban areas.
Groups and musicians including Horslips , Van Morrison and Thin Lizzy incorporated elements of Irish traditional music into contemporary rock music and, during the s and s, the distinction between traditional and rock musicians became blurred, with many individuals regularly crossing over between these styles of playing.
The earliest known Irish graphic art and sculpture are Neolithic carvings found at sites such as Newgrange  and is traced through Bronze Age artefacts and the religious carvings and illuminated manuscripts of the medieval period.
During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, a strong tradition of painting emerged, including such figures as John Butler Yeats , William Orpen , Jack Yeats and Louis le Brocquy.
The Irish philosopher and theologian Johannes Scotus Eriugena was considered one of the leading intellectuals of the early Middle Ages.
Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton , an Irish explorer, was one of the principal figures of Antarctic exploration. He, along with his expedition, made the first ascent of Mount Erebus and the discovery of the approximate location of the South Magnetic Pole.
Robert Boyle was a 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor and early gentleman scientist.
He is largely regarded as one of the founders of modern chemistry and is best known for the formulation of Boyle's law. Father Nicholas Joseph Callan , Professor of Natural Philosophy in Maynooth College , is best known for his invention of the induction coil , transformer and he discovered an early method of galvanisation in the 19th century.
With Sir John Douglas Cockcroft , he was the first to split the nucleus of the atom by artificial means and made contributions to the development of a new theory of wave equation.
Sir Joseph Larmor , a physicist and mathematician, made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics and the electron theory of matter.
His most influential work was Aether and Matter, a book on theoretical physics published in Obtenir un support Contactez-nous. Oui Non.
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